• Evidence and Treatments
  • Fundamentals of Oncology
  • Coordination of Care
  • Multidisciplinary Care
  • Supportive Care
  • Prevention, Screening & Risk
  • Non-Clinical Skills
  • Key Resources

  • Adolescent & Young Adult
  • CALD
  • Clinical Practice Improvement
  • Geriatric
  • Indigenous
  • Paediatric
  • Palliative Care
  • Primary Care
  • Rural & Remote
  • Work/Life Balance

  • Tumour Streams
  • Breast Cancer
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Lung Cancer
  • Melanoma
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Rare Cancers

Title: Prevention, Screening and Risk

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Resources

Organisation:The Cancer Council Australia
Comments:

Reviewed in May 2011, the Cancer Council's Alcohol and Cancer Prevention position statement summarises the evidence that links alcohol consumption to cancer and explores the impact that alcohol consumption has on overall health and cancer occurrence.

A refereed journal article relating to the review of this position statement, "Alcohol and Cancer: a position statement from the Cancer Council Australia" was recently published in the Medical Journal of Australia (ref: (Winstanley, Margaret H; Pratt, Iain S; Chapman, Kathryn; Griffin, Hayley J, Croager, Emma J; Olver,  Ian N; Sinclair, Craig and Slevin, Terry J. MJA 2011; 194: 479–482).

Format:PDF file on website
Target audience: All medical practitioners
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Australia
URL:http://www.cancer.org.au/cancer-control-policy/position-statements/alcohol-and-cancer/
Updated date:2013
Organisation:American Cancer Society
Comments:

This document is a condensed version of the article describing the American Cancer Society (ACS) Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines, which are updated every 5 years. The guidelines were developed by the American Cancer Society 2006 Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee and approved by the American Cancer Society National Board of Directors on May 19, 2006.

Format:PDF file on website
Target audience: Multidisciplinary
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:USA
URL:http://www.cancer.org/healthy/eathealthygetactive/acsguidelinesonnutritionphysicalactivityforcancerprevention/acs-guidelines-on-nutrition-and-physical-activity-for-cancer-prevention-intro
Updated date:2013
Organisation:Alliance for Cervical Cancer
Comments:

The Alliance consists of five partner organizations, brought together by their capabilities and experience in global cervical cancer prevention:

A broad range of documents and resources are available for download from the website, many in English, Spanish and French. Publications regarding cervical cancer prevention include:

Format:PDF file on website
Target audience: Multidisciplinary
Accessibility:
Cost:
Country of Origin:UK
URL:http://www.alliance-cxca.org/english/publications.html#cciid
Updated date:2010
Organisation:Breast Cancer Prevention Institute
Comments:

This booklet was written to help women understand what their risk factors are for the development of breast cancer and how they can reduce their risk.

Format:PDF file on website
Target audience: Multidisciplinary
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:USA
URL:http://www.bcpinstitute.org/booklet4.htm
Updated date:2013
Organisation:Saunders-Matthey Cancer Prevention Coalition (SMCPC)
Comments:

The focus of Saunders-Matthey Cancer Prevention Coalition is to educate the public on primary cancer prevention; the need to eliminate carcinogens in the environment; the promotion of green alternatives and support for the initiation of testing of air, soil and water in areas known for high cancer incidence.

The website features a range of resources highlighting the preventative nature of many environmental and lifestyle factors that may contribute to cancer.

Resources include:

  • Introduction: The Case for Prevention 
  • It's About Prevention. It's About Time!
  • Cancer & Chemicals
  • Hormone Disruptors
  • Ionizing Radiation & Cancer
  • EMFs & Cancer
  • Occupational Cancers
  • Household Hazards
  • Mammography
  • Beyond Tamoxifen
  • Cancer And 'Lifestyle'
  • The Limits - And Abuse - of Science
  • Cancer Prevention in Ontario
  • 10 Strategies for Prevention
Format:PDF file on website
Target audience: Multidisciplinary
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Canada
URL:http://www.stopcancer.org/Main/default/default.aspx
Updated date:2012
Organisation:Cancer Council Victoria
Comments:

A range of brochures and posters educating Indigenous Australians about the detection of cancer, particularly cervical cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and the prevention of cancer through initiatives such as quitting smoking.

The site also contains links to other Indigenous organisations and resources.

Format:PDF file on website
Target audience: Multidisciplinary
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Australia
URL:http://www.cancervic.org.au/preventing-cancer/aboriginal-health/indigenous-resources
Updated date:2013
Organisation:Cancer Council South Australia
Comments:

A brochure that can be provided to patients to educate them about the known risk factors associated with cancer together with information to assist them to reduce their risk, including being physically active, quitting smoking, being sun smart and participating in screening programs. 

Format:PDF file on website
Target audience: Health profesionals, public health workers, consumers
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Australia
URL:http://www.cancersa.org.au/information/i-want-to-cut-my-cancer-risk
Updated date:2013
Organisation:Dana Farber Cancer Institute
Comments:

Information regarding preventative measures and risk reductions options to avoid developing cancer.

The information is written in two formats, one for patients and the other for health professionals.

Tumour specific information is provided for a wide range of cancers, as well as guides for the cessation of smoking.

Format:Website - information only
Target audience: Multidisciplinary
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:USA
URL:http://www.dana-farber.org/can/prevention/
Updated date:2011
Organisation:Cancer Institute NSW
Comments:

Information and facts for consumers regarding sun safety and myths, prevention of skin cancers, types of skin cancers and early detection. The site also includes a skin cancer risk tool.

Format:Website - educational resource
Target audience: Consumers
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Australia
URL:http://www.darksideoftanning.com.au/
Updated date:2011
Organisation:World Health Organisation
Comments:

The World Health Organization's new Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health advise that people of all ages can reduce the risk of developing a Non Communicable Disease, including breast and colon cancers, by undertaking various amounts and intensities of physical activity.

The recommendations are available in a number of languages and target ages.

Format:PDF file on website
Target audience: Multidisciplinary
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Other - European
URL:http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/factsheet_recommendations/en/index.html
Updated date:2011
Organisation:U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
Comments:

The Guide to Clinical Preventive Services includes U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations on screening, counseling, and preventive medication topics and includes clinical considerations for the following cancers:

  • Bladder
  • Breast
  • Cervical
  • Colorectal
  • Gynaecological
  • Lung
  • Oral
  • Ovarian
  • Pancreatic
  • Prostate
  • Skin
  • Testicular

The guides are an authoritative source for making decisions about preventive services.

Format:PDF file on website
Target audience: Multidisciplinary
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:USA
URL:http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstopics.htm
Updated date:2009
Organisation:Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP)
Comments:

The Guidelines for preventive activities in general practice (the Red Book) is a synthesis of evidence-based guidelines from Australia and international sources and provides recommendations for everyday use in general practice; including preventative activities at various stages of life and practical advice on what kind of screening and services should be provided to the general population. It also identifies high risk segments of the population that require different preventive services.

An adult chart and a childrens' chart are provided.

Of particular interest are Chapter 2, which focuses on genetic counselling for hereditary illnesses such as breast and bowel cancers, Chapter 7 focusing on prevention of chronic disease and Chapter 9 which focuses on screening and early detection of cancers.

Format:Workshop (one off)
Target audience: General Practice
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Australia
URL:http://www.racgp.org.au/your-practice/guidelines/redbook/
Updated date:2013
Organisation:International Society for Nurses in Cancer Care (ISNCC)
Comments:

ISNCC is committed to maximizing the potential that nurses, the largest group of healthcare professionals, have in reducing adult and youth tobacco use, promoting cessation, actively protecting all people against secondhand tobacco smoke, and helping to increase access to tobacco use prevention and cessation services.

This Position Statement provides recommendations that demonstrate the ISNCC's proactive stance for the prevention of tobacco use to reduce cancer risk, intervention to support the cessation efforts of patients with cancer and cancer survivors who are at increased risk for side effects of treatment, cancer recurrence, a second tobacco-related cancer, increased morbidity, decreased survival, and diminished quality of life.

Furthermore, nurses who support smoking cessation in patients thereby support patient families by potentially reducing the number of future familial smokers.

Format:PDF file on website
Target audience: Allied Health - Nursing
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Canada
URL:http://www.isncc.org/files/Resources/Tobacco_Position_Statement_2009_-_English.pdf
Updated date:2009
Organisation:Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing
Comments:

The National Skin Cancer Awareness Campaign was designed to educate Australian teenagers aged 14-17 years about the seriousness of, and their susceptibility to, skin cancer and increase the adoption and awareness of the five key sun protection behaviours:

  1. Seek shade
  2. Wear sun protective clothing that covers as much of your body as possible
  3. Put on a broad-brimmed hat that shades your face, neck and ears
  4. Wear wrap-around sunglasses
  5. Apply SPF30+ broad spectrum water resistant sunscreen every two hours.

Fact sheets and campaign materials are available for download.

Format:Website - educational resource
Target audience: Consumers
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Australia
URL:http://www.skincancer.gov.au/
Updated date:2010
Organisation:National Cancer Institute
Comments:

The Physician Database Query (PDQ) is the NCI database that contains the latest information about cancer treatment, screening, prevention, genetics, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine.

The Cancer Prevention Overview provides an overview of cancer prevention strategies, including a summary of evidence for selected preventive strategies used in the prevention of a broad spectrum of malignancies and information regarding a range of risk factors, carcinogens and interventions common to most cancers.

The PDQ cancer prevention summaries provide comprehensive, peer-reviewed information for health professionals about cancer prevention and are primarily organized by specific anatomic cancer site to facilitate consideration of the unique characteristics of specific malignancies. 

Tumour streams include:

  • Breast
  • Cervical
  • Colorectal
  • Endometrial
  • Oesophogeal
  • Stomach
  • Liver
  • Lung
  • Oral
  • Ovarian
  • Stomach
  • Prostate
Format:PDF file on website
Target audience: Health professionals, consumers, general public
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:USA
URL:http://www.cancer.gov/cancerinfo/pdq/prevention
Updated date:2010
Organisation:Prevent Cancer Now
Comments:

A Canadian advocacy group whose mission is to make the primary prevention of cancer a priority through education, legislation and policy changes.

The group have created a portal of  links to a wide range of resources available on the internet regarding cancer prevention, particularly regarding the latest information on environmental and lifestyle factors, such as toxins, pesticides and asbestos.

Format:PDF file on website
Target audience: Multidisciplinary
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Canada
URL:http://preventcancernow.ca/main/resources/links#environmental_factors
Updated date:2010
Organisation:National Cancer Institute
Comments:

The Division of Cancer Prevention provides information on prevention and detection of specific cancers, including breast, cervical, colorectal, endometrial, esophageal, lung, oral, ovarian, prostate, skin, and stomach.

Links offer details on genetic factors, causes, screening, key trials and contacts.

Format:Website - information only
Target audience: Multidisciplinary
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:USA
URL:http://prevention.cancer.gov/prevention-detection/cancers
Updated date:2010
Organisation:The Cancer Council Australia
Comments:

The Cancer Council Australia has developed a range of evidence-based position statements to communicate our position on key cancer issues. Position statements are written by The Cancer Council‘s expert committees and are based on the evidence available.

Many of the statements relate to the prevention of cancer; reducing cancer risks; screening and early diagnosis.

All statements are reviewed regularly, in accordance with The Cancer Council Australia‘s position statements policy.

Statements include:

  • Alcohol and cancer
  • Breast cancer
  • Bowel cancer
  • Cervical cancer
  • Nutrition and physical activity
  • Occupational and environmental cancers
  • Oral contraceptives
  • Prostate cancer
  • Smoking and tobacco control
  • SunSmart
  • Supportive care
  • State and territory travel and accomodation subsidy schemes
  • Benefits of healthy diet and physical activity for cancer survivors
  • Complementary and alternative therapies
  • Testicular cancer
Format:PDF file on website
Target audience: Multidisciplinary
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Australia
URL:www.cancer.org.au/policy/positionstatements.htm
Updated date:2013
Organisation:The Cancer Council Australia
Comments:

The National Cancer Prevention Policy 2007-09 advocates for a concerted and comprehensive national approach to the prevention of cancer. It offers clear recommendations on how Australia can reduce the estimated 106,000 new cases of cancer diagnosed each year.

The first section outlines a strategic approach to reducing preventable risk factors relating to: tobacco, ultraviolet radiation, diet, physical activity, obesity/overweight and alcohol. The second section discusses areas where population screening may be an effective approach to reducing the burden of disease.

The policy makes specific recommendations for national action by governments and non-government organisations, including programs and strategies to reduce the incidence of cancer. It does not provide information about cancer prevention for individuals.

Format:PDF file on website
Target audience: Health professionals, consumers, the general public
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Australia
URL:http://www.cancer.org.au/cancer-control-policy/prevention-policy/national-cancer-prevention-policy.html
Updated date:2013
Organisation:US Preventive Services Task Force/Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)
Comments:

A summary of preventive, screening and early detection measures for common conditions, including a wide range of cancers (Section 2, pages 13-56).

Though developed in the context of the USA, the Guide can assist all primary carers to make evidence based decisions about preventive services.

The Guide has also been developed into a free, downloadable and interactive Web-based application designed to help primary care clinicians identify the screening, counseling, and preventive medication services that are appropriate for their patients, at EPSS.

Format:PDF file on website
Target audience: General Practice
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:USA
URL:http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/pocketgd1011/pocketgd1011.pdf
Updated date:2010
Organisation:Cancer Australia
Comments:

This resource is designed specifically for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Workers and health professionals who work with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. It has been developed to support Health Workers to run a Well Women Workshop to provide Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women with the information they should know about breast changes and breast screening to encourage and enable women to be proactive about breast health.

The resource includes advice for the workshop organiser, presenter notes, resources to organise and run the workshop, including NBOCC’s What every Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander woman should know DVD, and health promotion materials including the Looking after your breasts flyer (pdf 1mB).

Format:Workshop toolkit
Target audience: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Workers and health professionals who work with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women.
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Australia
URL:http://www.canceraustralia.gov.au/affected-cancer/cancer-types/breast-cancer/about-breast-cancer/aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-women/aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-health
Updated date:2013
Organisation:World Health Organisation
Comments:

Details the World Health Organisation's strategies to prevent cancer, including:

Format:Website - information only
Target audience: Health professionals, consumers
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Other - European
URL:http://www.who.int/cancer/prevention/en/
Updated date:2010
Organisation:Australian Family Physician Journal
Comments:

The April 2009 (Vol 38, (4) 177 - 272) issue of Australian Family Physician Journal focuses on cancer screening, with articles on topics including:

  • Cancer screening in general practice
  • Cancer screening – pros, cons, choice, and the patient
  • There’s cancer in the family
  • Bowel cancer screening – a role for general practice
  • Bridging the gap between primary care and public health.
Format:PDF file on website
Target audience: General Practice
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Australia
URL:http://www.racgp.org.au/afp/200904
Updated date:2009
Organisation:Cancer Control P.L.A.N.E.T
Comments:

This portal provides access to data and resources to help planners, program staff, and researchers to design, implement and evaluate evidence-based cancer control programs.

The portal provides access to Web-based resources that can assist in the development of comprehensive cancer control plan, including:

  • Assessing the cancer and/or risk factor burden within a given state (US based).
  • Identifying potential partner organizations that may already be working with high-risk populations.
  • Understanding the current research findings and recommendations.
  • Accessing and downloading evidence-based programs and products.
  • Finding guidelines for planning and evaluation.

Cancers can also be searched by topic:

  • Breast Cancer    
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Colorectal Cancer    
  • Diet / Nutrition
  • Informed Decision Making    
  • Physical Activity
  • Public Health Genomics    
  • Sun Safety
  • Survivorship    
  • Tobacco Control
Format:Website - information only
Target audience: Multidisciplinary
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:USA
URL:http://cancercontrolplanet.cancer.gov/index.html
Updated date:2010
Organisation:The Cancer Council Australia/NSW
Comments:

National screening programs are available in Australia to detect breast cancer, bowel cancer and cervical cancer.

These programs are available free of charge to people for whom there is evidence that the screening test can find a cancer at a stage when treatment is more effective.

The aim of screening programs is to pick up very early cancers in healthy individuals, who do not have symptoms.

There are national screening programs in Australia for:

Format:Website - information only
Target audience: Consumers
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Australia
URL:http://www.cancer.org.au/about-cancer/early-detection/screening-programs/
Updated date:2013
Organisation:Dana Farber Cancer Institute
Comments:

Information regarding screening and testing programs, risk assessment and prediction measures and other options to detect cancer early.

Tumour specific information is provided for a wide range of cancers and is written in two formats, one for patients and the other for health professionals.

Format:Website - information only
Target audience: Multidisciplinary
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:USA
URL:http://www.dana-farber.org/can/screening/
Updated date:2011
Organisation:National Bowel Cancer Screening Program
Comments:

A guide for General Practitioners to assist in the National Bowel Cancer Screening Program to assess positive tests and refer patients appropriately. The guide includes information regarding faecal occult blood tests (FOBT), duty of care and payment arrangements.

A range of resources are also available for health practitioners.

Format:Web-based PDF, journal article
Target audience: General Practice
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Australia
URL:http://www.health.gov.au/internet/screening/publishing.nsf/Content/bw-gp-infochart/$File/gp-infochart.pdf
Updated date:2010
Organisation:National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN)
Comments:

Downloadable clinical practice guidelines developed and endorsed by NCCN for the screening and early detection of colorectal cancers.

Format:PDF file on website
Target audience: Health professionals working in colorectal cancer care
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:USA
URL:http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/colorectal_screening.pdf
Updated date:2011
Organisation:National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN)
Comments:

Downloadable clinical practice guidelines developed and endorsed by NCCN for the early detection of prostate cancer.

Format:PDF file on website
Target audience: Health professionals working in prostate cancer care
Accessibility:Free - registration required
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:USA
URL:http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/prostate_detection.pdf
Updated date:2011
Organisation:National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN)
Comments:

Downloadable clinical practice guidelines developed and endorsed by NCCN for:

Format:PDF file on website
Target audience: Health professionals working in breast cancer care
Accessibility:Free - registration required
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:USA
URL:http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/f_guidelines.asp
Updated date:2011
Organisation:National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN)
Comments:

Downloadable clinical practice guidelines developed and endorsed by NCCN for the early detection of cervical cancer.

Format:PDF file on website
Target audience: Health professionals working in gynaecological cancer care
Accessibility:Free - registration required
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:USA
URL:http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/cervical_screening.pdf
Updated date:2011
Organisation:Screening Subcommittee of the Australian Population Health Development Principal Committee (APHDPC)
Comments:

Endorsed by the Australian Health Ministers Council at its 9 October 2008 meeting, the purpose of this framework is to inform decision makers on the key issues to be considered when assessing potential screening programs in Australia, particularly: criteria to assess whether screening should be offered for diseases/conditions including cancer; and the key principles for the implementation and management of screening programs.

The framework is underpinned by the principles of access and equity, fundamental elements to all population screening programs, and is intended to provide guidance and inform judgement.

Format:PDF file on website
Target audience: Multidisciplinary
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Australia
URL:http://www.cancerscreening.gov.au/internet/screening/publishing.nsf/Content/pop-based-screening-fwork/$File/screening-framework.pdf
Updated date:2008
Organisation:Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP)
Comments:

This 2009 policy reaffirms the position of the RACGP on prostate cancer testing, recommending that patients should be fully informed of the potential benefits, risks and uncertainties of prostate cancer testing and then make their own decision about being tested after discussion and assessment by a GP.

Where a patient chooses to be tested, the RACGP recommends that both PSA and DRE should be performed.

Format:Web-based PDF
Target audience: General practitioners, consumers
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Australia
URL:http://www.racgp.org.au/afp/200705/200705frydenberg.pdf
Updated date:2013
Organisation:Western Australian Clinical Oncology Group
Comments:

A booklet to present current recommendations on screening for cancer and a useful reference tool for general practitioners who are confronted with cancer screening issues in their day to day practice. Eight common malignancies have been included in this review of screening recommendations: breast, cervical, colorectal, lung, melanoma, ovarian, prostate and testicular cancer.

Part 1 is concerned with definitions and distinctions between screening and ad hoc case-finding of malignant neoplasms.

Part 2 of the booklet deals with specific information regarding screening for each of the eight cancers.

Downloadable/printable quick reference guide available:

http://www.cancerwa.asn.au/resources/2010-06-28-recommendations-for-screening-for-specific-cancers-a4-card.pdf

Format:PDF file on website
Target audience: Multidisciplinary
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Australia
URL:http://www.cancerwa.asn.au/resources/2009-10-01-recommendations-for-screening-and-surveillance-gp-card.pdf
Updated date:2013
Organisation:Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing
Comments:

The National Cervical Screening Program aims to reduce incidence and death from cervical cancer, in a cost-effective manner, through a more organised approach to cervical screening.

The Program promotes routine screening with Pap smears every two years for women between the ages of 18 (or two years after first sexual intercourse, whichever is later) and 69 years.

Resources for health professionals are included on the site, including the Screening Essentials Kit and Human Papillomavirus Vaccines for Australians: Information for GPs and Immunisation Providers.

Format:Website - educational resource
Target audience: Multidisciplinary
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Australia
URL:http://www.cancerscreening.gov.au/internet/screening/publishing.nsf/Content/cervical-about
Updated date:2011
Organisation:World Health Organisation
Comments:

Information from the World Health Organisation regarding their cancer prevention campaigns in under developed areas, in particular, regarding:

Format:Website - information only
Target audience: Multidisciplinary
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Other - European
URL:http://www.who.int/cancer/detection/en/
Updated date:2012
Organisation:National Centre for Gynaecological Cancers, Cancer Australia, Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists (RANZCR)
Comments:

Cancer Australia has released a new resource for general practitioners and gynaecologists to assist in effective and timely investigation of symptoms which could be endometrial cancer. Endometrial cancer is the most common invasive gynaecological cancer in Australia and the incidence of the disease is increasing.

The guide will assist health professionals in assessing women with abnormal vaginal bleeding.

Format:PDF file on website
Target audience: General practitioners, gynaecologists
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Australia
URL:http://www.canceraustralia.gov.au/publications-resources/cancer-australia-publications/abnormal-vaginal-bleeding-pre-peri-and-post
Updated date:2013
Organisation:Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
Comments:

The key to curing cancer is catching it early. For many common cancers, when the disease is caught early, nine out of 10 patients can be saved.

Rsearchers at the centre are dedicated to the discovery of the most effective ways to find and treat cancer at its earliest stages through innovative new technologies far more powerful than current methods.

Current research projects involve the study of blood, where proteins and other molecules called "biomarkers" - substances in our body that indicate the risk for or presence of disease - hold critical information about cancer. They could lead to tests for cancer to detect disease, monitor risk and  choose the best course of treatment for a patient.

Format:Website - information only
Target audience: Research
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:USA
URL:http://www.fhcrc.org/research/initiatives/edi/index.html
Updated date:2010
Organisation:The Cancer Council Western Australia
Comments:

Information from the Cancer Council WA about community programs demonstrating the importance of finding cancer early, as some cancers are easier to treat in their early stages.

Programs include:

  • Mammographic screening for breast cancer
  • Pap smear screening for cervical cancer
  • Faecal Occult Blood Testing (FOBT) for bowel cancer
  • Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) and Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) for prostate cancer.
Format:Website - information only
Target audience: Multidisciplinary
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Australia
URL:http://www.cancerwa.asn.au/prevention/earlydetection/?pg=earlydetection
Updated date:2010
Organisation:University of Michigan Health System
Comments:

These guidelines were developed to provide a framework for care providers to assist patients in smoking cessation, including:

  • Assess and document smoking status of every patient.
  • Provide smoking cessation intervention to all smokers.
  • Treat behavioral/ psychological aspects of cigarette addiction with advice and counseling.
  • Treat biologic aspects of cigarette addiction with pharmacological therapies.
Format:PDF file on website
Target audience: Multidisciplinary
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:USA
URL:http://ocpd.med.umich.edu/sites/ocpd.med.umich.edu/files/guidelines/tobacco.pdf
Updated date:2013
Organisation:Prostate Cancer Research Institute
Comments:

This site links to a range of algorithm and nomogram tools and software developed to assist in predicting the extent of prostate cancer, including those developed by John Hopkins University and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Centre.

Predictive algorithms and nomograms combine multiple variables to provide information that is statistically more significant than any individual variable. A nomogram is "an objective tool that uses an algorithm or mathematical formula to predict the probability of an outcome". These tools can give probabilities of cancer location or of treatment success, based on scientific studies done with hundreds or thousands of patients. 

Algorithms/nomograms may be valuable for evaluating the potential extent of disease and risk of recurrence but they do not determine outcomes.

 

Format:Website - information only
Target audience: Health professionals working with patients with prostate cancer
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:USA
URL:http://prostate-cancer.org/prostate-cancer-algorithmsnomograms/
Updated date:2013
Organisation:American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Publications
Comments:

Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention is publishes original, peer-reviewed research on cancer causation, mechanisms of carcinogenesis, prevention, and survivorship monthly.

Topics include descriptive, analytical, biochemical, and molecular epidemiology; the use of biomarkers to study the neoplastic and preneoplastic processes in humans; chemoprevention and other types of prevention trials; and the role of behavioral factors in cancer etiology and prevention. All submissions undergo peer review.

Format:Referreed journal
Target audience: Multidisciplinary
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:
Country of Origin:USA
URL:http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/
Updated date:2011
Organisation:Centre for Genetics Education
Comments:

A fact sheet discussing the hereditary factors that may contribute to the development of a tumour, including information regarding genetic counselling,

Format:PDF file on website
Target audience: Multidisciplinary
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Australia
URL:http://www.genetics.edu.au/Information/Genetics-Fact-Sheets/Cancer-Genes-and-Inherited-Predisposition-Overview-Cancer-Genetics-1-FS47
Updated date:2012
Organisation:Cancer Research
Comments:
An article published in Cancer Research (authored by Carbone, M; Klein, G; Gruber, J. and Wong, M.; 2004, August 1,  64; 5518) regarding the Cancer Etiology Branch of the National Cancer Institute workshop, “Validation of a causal relationship: criteria to establish etiology,” held to determine whether recent technological advances make it possible to delineate improved or novel criteria for the rapid establishment for cancer causation.
Format:Website - information only
Target audience: Research
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:USA
URL:http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/64/15/5518.full?ijkey=V9CVfgEBcCWA.&keytype=ref&siteid=aacrjnls
Updated date:2004
Organisation:National Cancer Institute
Comments:

Certain risk factors increase the chance that a person will develop cancer.

Information is provided regarding the most common risk factors for cancer, including:

  • Ageing
  • Tobacco
  • Sunlight
  • Ionizing radiation
  • Certain chemicals and other substances
  • Some viruses and bacteria
  • Certain hormones
  • Family history of cancer
  • Alcohol
  • Poor diet, lack of physical activity, or being overweight
Format:Website - information only
Target audience: Multidisciplinary
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:USA
URL:http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/prevention-genetics-causes/causes
Updated date:2010
Organisation:Division of Cancer Biology, National Cancer Institute
Comments:

The Cancer Etiology Branch (CEB) supports research programs dealing with biological, chemical, and physical agents that are known or possible etiological factors or co-factors in cancer.  These research programs also address the control of these etiological agents and their associated diseases and with the contribution of the host genome, proteome and microbiome to the sensitivity of cells, tissues and organs to these agents.

Information is available regarding key research projects.

Format:Website - information only
Target audience: Multidisciplinary
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:USA
URL:https://dcb.nci.nih.gov/branches/ceb/Pages/Home.aspx
Updated date:2010
Organisation:NSW Health Centre for Genetics Education
Comments:

The Centre for Genetics Education is dedicated to providing current and relevant genetics information to individuals and family members affected by genetic conditions and the professionals who work with them. Based at Royal North Shore Hospital in Sydney, the Centre‘s research and educational activities aim to bring genetics information to the widest audience possible.

Included on the site are:

  • Links for health professionals to publications, portals, reports, texts, policies and clinical guidelines addressing genetic health services and genetic conditions;
  • Information regarding genetics, cancer and heredity, including downloadable fact sheets
  • FAQs and reports for consumers and their families.
Format:Website - information only
Target audience: Multidisciplinary
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Australia
URL:http://www.genetics.edu.au/front-page-1
Updated date:2012
Organisation:National Health & Medical Research Council (NHMRC) and Australian Cancer Network
Comments:

Family history is widely recognised as an important risk factor for common cancer, and 5-10 percent of cancers are considered to be attributable to an inherited cancer predisposition. During the past decade there have been major developments in cancer genetics with the identification and characterisation of genes involved in the inherited forms of several common human cancers. The improved ability to detect individuals at high risk though analysis of their family history and/or genetic testing has been accompanied by major advances in screening, surveillance and prevention.

These guidelines address the needs of the major groups with proved or suspected familial predisposition to cancer. The target audience includes all health professionals who may be involved with families seeking advice concerning familial aspects of cancer. More specifically, the document is aimed at health professionals directly involved in the care and management of individuals and families who may have a genetic susceptibility to malignancy. Part 1 covers general issues relating to familial cancer services, whilst Part 2 looks at the requirements for particular cancers. This document attempts to provide up-to-date guidelines, many of which are based on recent reports in the scientific literature.

Format:Web-based PDF
Target audience: Multidisciplinary
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Australia
URL:http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/guidelines/publications/cp67
Updated date:2011
Organisation:The Cancer Council Australia
Comments:

To assist the public, media and health professionals, a method of classifying the level of carcinogenic risk associated with exposure to known, probable and possible carcinogens has been developed, by categorising each agent and the circumstances under which exposure occurs.

Listed in five tables are more than 60 possible cancer-causing agents and situations of exposure that have been reviewed and ranked in one of five risk bands - Proven, Likely, Inferred, Unknown or Unlikely.

Format:Website - information only
Target audience: Multidisciplinary
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Australia
URL:http://www.cancer.org.au/about-cancer/causes-of-cancer/
Updated date:2013
Organisation:International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
Comments:

The IARC Monographs identify environmental factors that can increase the risk of human cancer. These include chemicals, complex mixtures, occupational exposures, physical agents, biological agents, and lifestyle factors.

This classification index, updated in May 2010, details the more than 900 agents that have been evaluated since 1971, , of which approximately 400 have been identified as carcinogenic, probably carcinogenic, or possibly carcinogenic to humans.

Format:PDF file on website
Target audience: Multidisciplinary
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Other - European
URL:http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php
Updated date:2010
Organisation:Cancer Council Australia
Comments:

Cancer Council Australia has been bursting the bubble on cancer myths since the launch of its new website, iheard.com.au, in November.

Research by Cancer Council indicates that Australians are confused about what causes and prevents cancer, with 50 per cent of Australians mistakenly believing that drinking plenty of water and 47 per cent believing that getting enough sleep reduces their risk of cancer.

iheard is designed to combat misleading and fanciful claims about cancer by providing evidence-based answers written by professionals in the field.

Format:Website - information only
Target audience: Consumers
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Australia
URL:http://www.iheard.com.au/
Updated date:2012
Organisation:The National Cancer Nursing Education Project (EdCaN)
Comments:

Cancer is a complex set of diseases that can arise in any cell of the body capable of evading normal regulatory mechanisms. It also typically affects functioning of multiple body systems. Improvements in understanding of the biology of cancer have resulted in substantial changes in the prevention, detection and treatment of cancer in recent years.

This section of the EdCaN suite of resources provides information for Nurses and Specialist Cancer Nurses (SCNs) to gain a sound understanding of the biology of cancer and the natural history of this disease to assist the implementation of appropriately targeted and evidence based interventions at all stages of the cancer journey.

Format:Training resource (modular)
Target audience: Allied Health - Nursing
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:Australia
URL:http://www.cancerlearning.gov.au/edcan_resources/#/xml/module_3/supporting_modules/supporting_module_3/
Updated date:2009
Organisation:American Cancer Society
Comments:

Cancer is a complex group of diseases with many possible causes.

This site provides information about the known causes of cancer, including genetic factors; lifestyle factors such as tobacco use, diet, and physical activity; certain types of infections; and environmetal exposures to different types of chemicals and radiation.

Format:Website - information only
Target audience: Health professionals, consumers
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:USA
URL:http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancercauses/index
Updated date:2013
Organisation:Cancer Research UK
Comments:

A broad overview for those new to cancer care, students, patients and their families providing basic information about how and why cancer starts, how it grows, develops and spreads, why it makes people ill, and how it can be detected and treated.

Format:Website - educational resource
Target audience: Multidisciplinary
Accessibility:Publicly available - no restrictions
Cost:Free of charge
Country of Origin:UK
URL:http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer-info/cancerandresearch/all-about-cancer/what-is-cancer/
Updated date:2013